This seems to follow a logic of automating material production, where you look at the total process, disassemble it into component parts, and then deskill and automate it. In A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the bumbling amateur actors Bottom and his fellow artisans are called rude mechanicals, which suggests both their bumptiousness and the kind of work they do. In a conjuncture defined by high ideological tension, in which elite consensus and power structures seem increasingly discredited and the scope of political possibility is wider than in recent memory, Phillips-Fein's work is particularly topical. Many of us are trained in the sciences, while our methods are very much those of the historian. Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. There’s nothing epistemologically inevitable about it—quite the contrary. The second aspect of legal theory that underpinned early formulations of mathematical probability was the so-called aleatory contract, which depends on an uncertain future outcome. Similarly influential work conducted with Amit Bhaduri contested neoclassical models that view economic growth as a product of technological advancement and increases in the factors of production. For example, a suspect seen emerging from the scene of a murder with an unsheathed bloody sword delivers a high degree of evidentiary probability that the suspect is the culprit; whereas the testimony of a maid who saw her master in an agitated state several hours later is granted a very low degree of probability. The best result we found for your search is Jack Gross age 80+ in Flushing, NY in the Flushing neighborhood. Jurists, without having any kind of measurable scale, had already assigned fractions to these so-called indices of proof. ld: The first attempts to create mechanical calculators date to 17th-century thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz. Drawing on a Kaleckian framework which sees output as a function of effective demand, their paper distinguishes between "wage-led" and "profit-led" growth regimes. In both of these sites, a great deal of calculation had to be done by hand. But in terms of actually working on probability, it was Ian Hacking’s The Emergence of Probability that changed my path—literally overnight. ld: My college education in the 1970s coincided with the first phases of what we might call quantiphrenia: the beginning of academic evaluation in the form of not only grade point averages, but also citation indices, and so on. As for the law, there are two aspects of legal thought that turned out to be seminal for probability: degrees of proof, and aleatory contracts. What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? In the 18th and early 19th centuries, probability theory was always subject to the judgments of reasonable people. This is a simple economic story: an employer divides labor as finely as possible in order to employ the cheapest labor available on the market—schoolboys in this case, and then the highly educated, extremely conscientious labor of women. How do you see the history of science in relation to the social sciences more broadly? How did you become interested in probability, and specifically in the story of quantification? Few theorists of social movements have shaped the events that they analyze. Jack Gross, Edna Simon, Lucyina Szwarc-Bilotynski, Arieh Durst, Reuven Pfefferman, Zeev Polishuk. There is, however, a major difference between attempts to formalize reasoning from, say, 18th-century probability theory, and more modern notions of algorithmic rationality. There’s not a machine in sight. Her two books—which deal, respectively, with New York City's 1970s fiscal crisis and the rise of conservative business movement—also offer cautionary tales about the severe constraints under which political officials operate, and the ease with which powerful reactionary interests organize, relative to the public interest. He has a creative mind and is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new characters. As he put it, in his characteristic style: before 1654, there was no concept of probability; it was an unthinkable concept. JACK GROSS (AGENT) FIGURE WORLD OF AUSTIN INC: TEXAS DOMESTIC FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION: WRITE REVIEW: Address: 7015 Almeda Houston, TX 77054: Registered Agent: Jack Gross: Filing Date: March 15, 1979: File Number: 0046695600: Contact Us About The Company Profile For Figure World … If probability theory were a kind of natural evolution from gambling, it should have emerged in many places, in many epochs, long before the 17th century. This holds through all of your projects—from probability to observation to objectivity. Jack graduated from Eastern High School in 1979. This interview was originally published in the Los Angeles Review of Books. Condorcet’s curriculum featured instruction in probability—a reasonable calculus—to give future citizens a kind of road map for decision making. We can read interesting correspondences from astronomers at Oxford and Harvard recruiting the first generation of women college graduates to perform calculations for half the wages of men. The obvious one is the eruption of intellectual novelty, so fascinatingly presented in Hacking’s work. And, crucially, the early figures of mathematical probability—Pierre de Fermat, Leibniz, and Pascal—all had extensive experience in the law. Is that accurate? View Jack Gross’ profile on LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional community. Whitepages people search is the most trusted directory. Every second, Whitepages helps 19 people do reverse phone lookups, find people, and get background reports, including public records, in order to make smarter, safer decisions. We spoke over the phone to discuss the labor of calculation, the various emergences of formal rationality, and the importance of interdisciplinarity in the social sciences. One Jeanswear Group LLC has 800 total employees across all of its locations and generates $92.97 million in sales (USD). Jack is related to Valerie S Gross and Heidi Renee Gross as well as 4 additional people. These claims in Hacking’s book continue to grip me. Read Full Summary The major reason is that the vast majority of people did not belong to the reasonable male elite. Phenomenal World is a publication managed by staff of the Jain Family Institute. In legal contexts, this situation is familiar: sometimes applying the letter of the law betrays the spirit of the law—think of The Merchant of Venice as a paradigmatic case. Aleatory contracts opened a loophole in these prohibitions: taking a risk was considered to be a form of work that entitles the risk-taker (for example, someone who lent a merchant money for a long voyage) to collect interest on an investment. Rules that are less august in their domain of application than justice—rules, for example, defining the arts and crafts—are always formulated with an eye toward exceptions. Paul Gross is a Canadian producer, singer, director, writer and an actor most known for his role as Constable Benton Fraser in the TV series, Due South. Jack has 5 jobs listed on their profile. It’s a nonstarter as a historical hypothesis, even if some of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance. If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? September 26th, 2019 Jack Gross . The first stems from a much ridiculed doctrine of the arithmetic of proof, highly developed in 16th-century legal and casualist thinking, in which the testimony of different witnesses and different kinds of evidence are assigned different weights. They have also lived in Brooklyn, NY Jack is related to Lisa H Gross and Gross Paul as well as 1 additional person. Phenomenal World Phenomenal World February 13th, 2020 Austerity and Ideology ... Jack Gross: I wonder if you can speak in a little bit more detail about the institutions that emerged out of the crisis period. How did the early probabilists draw on the law for the concepts that they thought needed quantification? jg: What makes your research compelling for readers far outside your discipline is that you historicize areas of science whose language or mode of reasoning has become so commonplace that we forget they have origins in methodology. These two streams of legal thought influenced the early probabilists. An interview with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf. They have also lived in Key Largo, FL and Miami Gardens, FL. 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